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REVIEW ARTICLE
J Korean Sleep Res Soc. 2006;3(2):69-73.         doi: https://doi.org/10.13078/jksrs.06012
Hypocretins/Orexins and Narcolepsy
Ki-Young Jung, and Seung Bong Hong
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding Author: Seung Bong Hong ,Tel: +82-2-3410-3592, Fax: +82-2-3410-0052, Email: sbhong@smc.samsung.co.kr
Received: 1 December 2006;  Accepted: 17 December 2006.
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ABSTRACT
The hypocretins/orexins are two neuropeptides derived from the same precursor whose expression is restricted to the lateral hypothalamus. Animal studies indicate that hypocretins play a part in the regulation of various functions including arousal, muscle tone, locomotion, regulation of feeding behaviour, and neuroendocrine and autonomic functions. A link between hypocretin deficiency and narcoleptic symptoms was first shown in canine and rodent models of narcolepsy. Hypocretin deficiency, as shown by low or absent concentrations in CSF, was subsequently found in 90% of patients with sporadic narcolepsy-cataplexy, and less commonly in familial narcolepsy. Hypocretin measurements may now be applied as a new diagnostic tool, providing the results are interpreted within the clinical context. But further studies are needed to elucidate the exact function of the hypocretin system in sleep-wake regulation and its pathophysiological role in narcolepsy patients with decreased or normal hypocretin level as well as in patients with non-narcoleptic, hypocretin-deficiency syndromes.
Keywords: Hypocretin/orexin | Narcolepsy | Pathophysiology
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Diagnosis of Narcolepsy  2009 June;6(1)
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